Horse domestication in the Botai Culture, Eneolithic Kazakhstan
Dr Alan Outram
Dr Outram has been working with an international team of archaeologists and scientists to uncover the earliest known evidence of horses being domesticated by humans. They have discovered evidence that suggests that horses were both ridden and milked. The findings could point to the very beginnings of horse domestication and the origins of the horse breeds we know today. The research has been published in the leading academic journal Science.
The researchers have traced the origins of horse domestication back to the Botai Culture of Kazakhstan circa 5,500 years ago. This is about 1,000 years earlier than thought and about 2,000 years earlier than domestic horses are known to have been in Europe. Their findings strongly suggest that horses were originally domesticated, not just for riding, but also to provide food, including milk.
Through extensive archaeological fieldwork and subsequent analysis, using new techniques, the team developed three independent lines of evidence for early horse domestication. Their findings show that in the fourth millennium BC horses in Kazakhstan were being selectively bred for domestic use. They also show horses were being harnessed, possibly for riding, and that people were consuming horse milk.
Analysis of ancient bone remains showed that the horses were similar in shape to Bronze Age domestic horses and different from wild horses from the same region. This suggests that people were selecting wild horses for their physical attributes, which were then exaggerated through breeding. The team used a new technique to search for ‘bit damage’ caused by horses being harnessed or bridled. The results showed that horses had indeed been harnessed, suggesting they could have been ridden.
Using a novel method of lipid residue analysis, the researchers also analysed Botai pottery and found traces of fats from horse milk. Mare’s milk is still drunk in Kazakhstan, a country in which horse traditions run deep, and is usually fermented into a slightly alcoholic drink called ‘koumiss’. While it was known that koumiss had been produced for centuries, this study shows the practice dates back to the very earliest horse herders.
Lead author Dr Alan Outram said: “The domestication of horses is known to have had immense social and economic significance, advancing communications, transport, food production and warfare. Our findings indicate that horses were being domesticated about 1,000 years earlier than previously thought. This is significant because it changes our understanding of how these early societies developed.”
The steppe zones, east of the Ural Mountains in Northern Kazakhstan, are known to have been a prime habitat for wild horses thousands of years ago. They were a commonly hunted animal. This may have set the stage for horse domestication by providing indigenous cultures with access to plentiful wild herds and the opportunity to gain an intimate knowledge of equine behaviour. Horses appear to have been domesticated in preference to adopting a herding economy based upon domestic cattle, sheep and goats. Horses have the advantage of being adapted to severe winters and they are able to graze year round, even through snow. Cattle, sheep and goats need to be to be provided with winter fodder, and were a later addition to the prehistoric economies of the region.
People involved in this study include Alan Outram and Bruce Bradley (Universities of Exeter), Richard Evershed and Natalie Stear (University of Bristol), Robin Bendrey and Nick Thorpe (University of Winchester), Sandra Olsen (Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, USA), David Maki (Archeophysics, Minneapolis, USA) and Victor Zaibert (Kokshetau University, Kazakhstan) and was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council, British Academy and National Science Foundation of America.
Outram, A.K., Stear, N.A., Bendrey, R., Olsen, S., Kasparov, A., Zaibert, V., Thorpe, N. and Evershed, R.) 2009. The Earliest Horse Harnessing and Milking. Science 323, 1332-1335.
Olsen, S., Bradley, B., Maki, D. and Outram, A. (2006) Community organization among Copper Age sedentary horse pastoralists of Kazakhstan. In D. Peterson , L. M. Popova and A.T. Smith (ed.) Beyond the Steppe and the Sown: Proceedings of the 2002 University of Chicago Conference on Eurasian Archaeology. Leiden: Brill, 89-111.
Continued work at Botai
Given that the Botai Culture plays such prominence in the development of early horse domestication, the archaeology of the settlement deserves further attention. Dr Outram is collaborating with Victor Zaibert (Kokshetav University, Kazakhstan) to carry out further investigations of the Botai site, in particular to identify detailed phasing within its development and obtain much more environmental and economic evidence. In 2008, Dr Outram carried out with first geophysical survey of the site, with the aid of Exeter students.