Medieval Castles in Context (ARC3406)

StaffProfessor Oliver Creighton - Convenor
Credit Value15
ECTS Value7.50
NQF Level6
Pre-requisitesNot taken ARC2406
Duration of Module Term 1: 11 weeks;

Module aims

The module aims to develop an appreciation of medieval castles and related sites in Britain between the eleventh and sixteenth centuries. It adopts an holistic approach to these sites within their broader social and landscape contexts, and provides an overview of key differences in castle design both temporally and spatially, as well an appreciation of different debates concerning their interpretations, functions and meanings. While rooted in the study of British sites, material from Continental Europe and the Middle East will be used to explore broader developments and to provide comparison and contrast.

ILO: Module-specific skills

  • 1. Advanced knowledge of the principal site types and key trends in their chronological development and regional variation, alongside an appreciation of their wider social and landscape contexts
  • 2. Advanced knowledge of the range of techniques and data sources available for the study of these sites and their settings
  • 3. Critically assess the presentation of castle heritage to the public

ILO: Discipline-specific skills

  • 4. Develop advanced awareness of the kinds of material culture encountered and appreciate the mechanisms for their interpretation
  • 5. Develop advanced understanding of different scales of spatial organisation and how they are expressed in the archaeological record

ILO: Personal and key skills

  • 6. Research a topic guided by a bibliography, and understand and appreciate information from a variety of sources
  • 7. Evaluate terms, concepts and examples and organise such information synthetically in order to address key thematic issues
  • 8. Contribute to workshop presentations using visual aids where appropriate
  • 9. Respond to comments in discussion and ask pertinent questions

Syllabus plan

Whilst the content may vary from year to year, it is envisioned that it will cover some or all of the following topics:

  • Introduction and castle origins. The Norman period; earth and fortification; early castles of stone
  • Donjons: functions, meanings and evolution; masonry castle planning: defence and domesticity
  • Late medieval castles and fortified houses
  • Continental currents and influences; castle-building in Scotland and Ireland
  • Crusader castles; the impact and influence of castles in the Middle East
  • Landscape context 1: Castles and the rural scene; landscapes of lordship and design
  • Landscape context 2: Castles and urbanism; townscapes and the impact of authority
  • Social context 1: Castles and castle-building society; the image of the castle
  • Social context 2: Living in castles: the archaeological contribution
  • Workshops: (1) interpreting pictorial sources; (2) deciphering documents

Learning activities and teaching methods (given in hours of study time)

Scheduled Learning and Teaching ActivitiesGuided independent studyPlacement / study abroad

Details of learning activities and teaching methods

CategoryHours of study timeDescription
Scheduled Learning and Teaching168 x 2 hour lectures. OR an equivalent portfolio of online sessions, including lectures and presentations, both live and recorded, and online group activities.
Scheduled Learning and Teaching42 x 2 hour workshop. OR an equivalent portfolio of online sessions including live and recorded material.
Scheduled Learning and Teaching1Tutorial (one)
Guided Independent Study129Guided independent study including reading, research and preparation for classes, presentation and assignments.

Summative assessment (% of credit)

CourseworkWritten examsPractical exams

Details of summative assessment

Form of assessment% of creditSize of the assessment (eg length / duration)ILOs assessedFeedback method
Illustrated poster50Up to 1000 words1-9Verbal and Written feedback
Examination501.5 hours1-5Verbal and Written feedback

Details of re-assessment (where required by referral or deferral)

Original form of assessmentForm of re-assessmentILOs re-assessedTimescale for re-assessment
PosterPoster up to 1000 words1-9Referral/Deferral period
ExaminationExamination (1.5 hours)1-5Referral/Deferral period

Re-assessment notes

Deferral – if you miss an assessment for certificated reasons judged acceptable by the Mitigation Committee, you will normally be either deferred in the assessment or an extension may be granted. The mark given for a re-assessment taken as a result of deferral will not be capped and will be treated as it would be if it were your first attempt at the assessment.

Referral – if you have failed the module overall (i.e. a final overall module mark of less than 40%) you will be required to submit a further assessment as necessary. If you are successful on referral, your overall module mark will be capped at 40%.

Indicative learning resources - Basic reading

• Creighton, O.H. 2012: Early European Castles: Aristocracy and Authority, AD 800-1200. London:
• Bloomsbury. (E-book available)
• Liddiard, R. 2005: Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and Landscape, 1066 to 1500 . Bollington: Windgather. (E-book available)
• Johnson, M. 2002: Behind the Castle Gate: Medieval to Renaissance . London: Routledge. (E-book available)

Module has an active ELE page?


Indicative learning resources - Web based and electronic resources

• ELE:
• Homepage of the Castle Studies Group:
• Gatehouse Gazetteer:

Available as distance learning?


Origin date

January 2009

Last revision date


Key words search

Archaeology, Medieval, Castles